Background : Nepal is located between latitude 26 degree 22 minutes North to 30 degree 27 minutes North and longitude 80 degree 4 minutes East to 88 degree 12 minutes East. The country is locked country and sea access is about 1150 k.m. from the border. Nepal has its border with China on the north and India on the south, east and west.

Politically, in 1951, the Nepalese monarch ended the century-old system of rule by hereditary premiers and instituted a cabinet system of government. Reforms in 1990 established a multiparty democracy within the framework of a constitutional monarchy.

Map references : Asia
Area – total : 140,800 sq. k.m. land: 136,800 sq. k.m. water: 4,000 sq. k.m.
Area – comparative : Slightly larger than Arkansas
Land boundaries – total: 2,926 k.m. border countries: China 1,236 k.m., India 1,690 k.m.
Coastline : 0 k.m. (landlocked)
Administrative division : The country is administratively divided into 5 Development Regions, 14 Zones and 75 Districts.

Topography : Ecologically the country is divided into three regions running east to west i.e. the mountains, the hills and the terai. The mountain area lies at an altitude ranging from 4,877 meters to 8,848 meters above sea level. It constitutes the 15% total area of Nepal. Most of the high snow capped mountains including worlds highest peak Mt Everest (Mt Sagarmatha) are located in this region. The hills the middle region that covers the 64% of total area lies between the altitude ranging between 610 meters and 4877 meters above the sea level. This regions has numerous attractive valleys, basins, lakes and hills. The terai region that is low flat land situated along the southern side of the country. Most of the fertile lands and dense forest area of the country are located in this region. This region covers 17.1% of the area of the country.

Climate : The climate of the country varies with its topography. The climate ranges from tropical to arctic varying with the altitude. The Himalayan mountain region with an altitude above 3,353 meters has alpine climate with considerably low temperature in winter. The mid-hill region is pleasant all the year. The terai region can get hot and humid in summer.

Ports : No ports in the country.
Nearest ports : Calcutta (India), Chittagoan, Mangola (Bangladesh)
Road : Road network is about 11,867 k.m.

Air : Nepal has one international airport and 44 airfields. International servicing airlines include Royal Nepal Airlines, Aeroflot, Bangladesh Biman, China South East Airlines, Druk Airlines, Gulf Airways, Indian Airlines, Lufthansa, PIA, Qatar Airways, and Thai. Various internal airlines are in operation for domestic flights.

Railways : Janakpur – Jayanagar railway service covering about 52 k.m.
Population : (2001 Preliminary)Total Population : 23.21 million; male 11.58 million; female 11.62 million.
Literacy : Literacy rate (1991 census): Total: 39.6%; male 54.5%; female 25.1%.